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Working Brain

Brain anatomy




Nervous System Brain


Neurons and Nerves
The Brain
Spinal Cord
Peripheral Nervous System
Autonomic Nervous System
Senses: Sight,Senses, Smell,Taste, Sences,Senses
Higher Functions
Altered States

Thalamusin the middle of the limbic systemrelays incoming information (except smell) to the appropriate part of the brain for further processing.
Hypothalamus, Pituitary Glandbeneath thalamusregulates basic biological drives, hormonal levels, sexual behavior, and controls autonomic functions such as hunger, thirst, and body temperature.
Optic Chiasmin front of the pituitary glandleft-right optic nerves cross-over point.
Septumadjacent to hypothalamusstimulates sexual pleasure
Hippocampuswithin the temporal lobemediates learning and memory formation.
Amygdalain front of the hippocampusresponsible for anxiety, emotion, and fear
Mammillary Body, Fornixlinked to the hippocampushave a role in emotional behavior, learning, and motivation.
Caudate Nucleus, Putamen, Globus Pallidus,Basal Ganglia (Striatum)outside the thalamusinvolves in movement, emotions, planning and in integrating sensory information
Ventricles and Central Canalfrom tiny central canal within the spinal cord to the enlarged hollows within the skull called ventriclesfills with cerebrospinal fluid for mechanical protection.
Cingulate Gyrusabove corpus callosumconcentrates attention on adverse internal stimuli such as pain, contains the feeling of self.
Corpus Callosumunder the cingulate gyrusis a bundle of nerve fibers linking the cerebral hemispheres, involve in language learning.
(Human Brain)
Frontal Lobe
(Conscious Brain)
in front of the headcontrols voluntary movement, thinking, and feeling.
Prefrontal Cortexin front of the frontal lobeinhibits inappropriate actions, forms plans and concepts, helps focus attention, and bestows meaning to perceptions.
Parietal Lobein top rear of the headcontains the primary somatosensory area that manages skin sensation.
Occipital Lobein the back of the headcontains the visual cortex to manage vision.
Temporal Lobeon each side of the head above the templescontains the auditory cortex to manage hearing and speech.

Spinal Cord

Neuron and Nerve

The spinal cord (Figure 04a) lies along the middorsal line of the body. It has two main functions: (1) it is the center for many reflex actions, and (2) it provides a means of commu-nication between the brain and the spinal nerves that leave the cord (Figure 04b). The white matter of the cord is white because it contains myelinated long fibers of interneurons that run to-gether in bundles call tracts. These tracts connect the cord to the brain. The dorsal ones are primarily ascending to the brain, while the ventral tracts bring information down from the brain. The inner portion of the

Peripheral Nervous System

  • Table 03 Functions of Cranial Nerves
  • Go to the next page of spinal cord autonomic nerves

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