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Neurology Anatomy Physiology

December 14, 2021


neurons and Nerves
The Brain & Spinal Cord
Cranial Nerves
Peripheral Nervous System
Autonomic Nervous System
Senses: Eye diagrams, Hearing, Smell, Taste, Taste & Tongue Sensation, Balance
Memory , Memory types, Creation of Memory
Higher Functions
Altered States


Neuromodulator manipulations and abuses. Natural neuromodulators can aid the release or inhibit the reabsorption of neurotransmitters; still others delay the breakdown after reabsorption, leaving them in the tip to be reused by the next nerve impulse. Mood, pleasure, pain, and other mental states are determined by particular groups of neurons in the brain that use special sets of neurotransmitters and neuromodulators. For example, mood is strongly influenced by the neurotransmitter serotonin. It is believed that depression results from a shortage of serotonin. It is difficult to treat depression directly with serotonin because the chemical has too many other side effects. However, depression can be successfully treated with drugs that act as serotornin neuromodulators (Figure 02d). Prozac, the

Figure 02d Neuromodulator
[view large image]

world's top-selling antidepressant, inhibits the reabsorption of serotonin, increasing the amount in the synapse by slowing down its removal.