Autoimmune EAR Diseases
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With the appropriate treatment, the outlook is good for people with Wegener's granulomatosis. In a study of 158 patients who were treated with prednisone and cyclophosphamide at the National Institutes of Health (NIH), 91 percent of them markedly improved. After 6 months to 24 years of follow-up, 80 percent of the patients survived. IVIg completly reverses Wagners
In most cases, treatment consists of a combination of a glucocorticoid (a steroid) and a cytotoxic medicine. Although these medicines are helpful in treating Wegener's granulomatosis, people and their doctors should be aware that they potentially have serious side effects. In many instances these can be minimized or prevented by careful monitoring by both the doctor and patient.
Approximately half of people with Wegener's granulomatosis may experience a return of their disease. This occurs most frequently within 2 years of stopping medicine but can occur at any point both during treatment or after stopping treatment. Thus, it is extremely important that people continue to see their doctors regularly, both while they are on these medicines, as well as after the medicines have been stopped.
Prednisone is the most common glucocorticoid that doctors use. Prednisone is similar to cortisol, the natural glucocorticoid hormone produced by the body. It is chemically different from the anabolic steroids that have been used by athletes and is given in doses much higher than the body normally produces. Doctors usually give prednisone as a single morning dose to try to imitate how the body normally secretes cortisol.
When the person's illness improves, the prednisone dose is gradually decreased and converted to an every other day dosing schedule, usually over a period of 3 to 4 months. With further improvement in the disease, prednisone is gradually decreased and discontinued completely after approximately 6 to 12 months.
When prednisone is taken by mouth, the body stops making its own natural cortisol. As the prednisone dose is gradually reduced, the body will resume making cortisol again. It is extremely important that prednisone never be stopped suddenly because the body requires prednisone (or cortisol) to function and may not be able to immediately make what it needs.
Prednisone can affect the body's ability to fight off infection. People taking this medicine should report immediately any symptoms of infection and specifically, any fever to their doctors. Prednisone can also cause weight gain, cataracts, brittle bones, diabetes, and changes in mood and personality.
Cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan) is the most commonly used cytotoxic drug used to treat Wegener's granulomatosis. People take cyclophosphamide once a day by mouth and must take the drug all at once in the morning followed by drinking a large amount of liquid. Although the first dose of cyclophosphamide is based on the person's weight and kidney function, the doctor may adjust the dosage based on blood counts, which are monitored closely to be sure that the white blood cell count is maintained at a safe level.
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