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Coxsackievirus B (CVB) is the most common cause of infectious myocarditis. Infectious virus and viral RNA can be isolated from patients' hearts
Infection with S. pyogenes can lead to inflammation of the heart, and the involvement of lymphocytes in cardiac pathology has been suggested for some time
However, it is accepted most predominantly that the autoimmune reaction is caused by molecular mimicry
Cardiac lesions can also be induced in rabbits infected with the bacteria
STREPTOCOCCUS PYOGENES: GROUP A STREPCOCOCCUS
I has also been associated with the development of movement and behavioural disorders such as Sydenham chorea, Tourette's syndrome and obsessive–compulsive disorder
(Bb). Sixty per cent of untreated patients develop arthritis that can last for several years, mainly in large joints such as the knee. These patients have high titres of Bb-specific antibodies, Treatment of these patients with antibiotics usually ameliorates the arthritis, which indicates that bystander inflammatory response to the spirochete is responsible for early Lyme arthritis. A subset of patients will progress from acute to chronic arthritis despite treatment with antibiotics.
HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS
Herpetic stromal keratitis (HSK) is caused by corneal infection by herpes simplex virus (HSV) and can lead to blindness. Whereas progression from epithelial infection to stromal keratitis is not prevented by anti-viral drugs, the symptoms of HSK can be alleviated with immunosuppressive drugs such as corticosteroids .
Uveitis is a group of intra-ocular inflammatory diseases that are potentially blinding . It is believed that many subgroups of this disease are autoimmune-mediated, in part because of the strong association with certain HLA alleles
Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS) is a paralytic illness affecting both myelin and axons of the peripheral nervous system. Onset of GBS occurs days or weeks following an infection or immunization. Although several microorganisms have been associated with GBS development, Campylobacter jejuni is the most extensively studied pathogen as it is a common antecedent to GBS.
CSF from MS patients was shown to have higher levels of the bacteria Chlamydia pneumoniae.
The immune system has evolved checks and balances to prevent the destruction of host tissue. It is perhaps not surprising that a strong immune response to an invading pathogen could disrupt this regulation and lead to autoimmunity. As outlined above, there is significant evidence suggesting that different classes of pathogens (bacteria, viruses and parasites) are involved in triggering or propagating self-reactive immune responses.
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