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continued from the  Brain Page of Nervous System


Neurons and Nerves
The Brain & Spinal Cord
Cranial Nerves
Peripheral Nervous System
Autonomic Nervous System
Senses: Eye diagrams, Hearing, Smell, Taste, Taste & Tongue Sensation, Balance
Memory , Memory types, Creation of Memory,
Higher Functions
Altered States


  • Type Location(s) Function Example(s)
    Working Memory      
    Phonological Loop Left hemisphere Rehearsing verbal information to keep it in the short-term memory String of numerals and alphabets such as telephone numbers
    Visual-spatial Scratch Pad Visual Cortex Controlling visual imagery Scanning text
    Central Executive Frontal lobe Controlling awareness of the information in working memory Constructing sentence, comprehending speech
    Non-declarative Memory      
    Procedural Memory Cerebellum, temporal lobes Managing "how to" Riding a bicycle, kungfu exercise
    Classical Conditioning Cerebellum Forming habitual behaviour Coffee break, afternoon tea
    Fear Memory Amygdala Emotional conditioning Phobias, flashbacks
    Nonassociative Memory Spinal cord Habituation and Sensitization Decreased or increased responsiveness to stimulus
    Remote Memory (Priming) Scattered around the cortex Foundation for new memories Childhood memory
    Declarative Memory      
    Episodic Memory Cortex Remembering past experience Some enchanted evening
    Semantic Memory Frontal lobe, temporal lobe Registering facts Meanings of words and symbols

    Table 06 Types of Memory

    • Working Memory -Most of our memories are fleeting because few of the many experiences we have in the course of an average day are remembered for very long, nor do they need to be. Transient memories are absolutely essential to the process of understanding the meaning of events as they occur in the present. This type of very short-term memory for things being experienced now is known as working memory; it allows you to comprehend what you are reading or to figure out the meaning of what has just been said to your in a conversation. Working memory can be thought of as a low capacity information reservoir that is always full, sensations flowing into it continuously at about the same rate that they are forgotten. Some of the information held in short-term storage may be important enough to be remembered for a long time and must therefore be transferred to a more stable form of storage, which is represented by far more robust
      Working Memory alterations in the brain's chemical and physical make-up in the form of synaptic connections. It is not necessarily for an important experience to trigger the formation of long-term memories, other factors such emotion, practice, and rehearsal also facilitate the transformation. Experiments show that in all cases the most important underlying distinction between the short- and long-term memory formation is that the latter requires a dialogue between synapses and genes and the former does not.

      Continued to working memory page

      Figure 25 Working Memory
      [view large image]