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Neurology Anatomy Physiology

Aprial 24, 2020

Contents

neurons and Nerves
neurotransmitter
The Brain & Spinal Cord
Cranial Nerves
Peripheral Nervous System
Autonomic Nervous System
Senses: Eye diagrams, Hearing,Smell,Taste, Taste & Tongue Sensation,Balance
Memory , Memory types, Creation of Memory,
Higher Functions
Altered States


 

Cranial NerveCN#Brain RegionMajor Functions
Terminal0Near the olfactoryReception of pheromone for sex
Olfactory1Cerebral CortexSmell
Optic2Limbic SystemVision
Oculomotor3MidbrainEyelid & eyeball movement; pupil dilation
Trochlear4PonsControl downward & lateral eye movement
Trigeminal5"Chewing; sensation of face & mouth
Abducens6"Control lateral eye movement
Facial7"Control most facial expressions; secretion of tears & saliva; taste; ear sensation
Auditory8MedullaHearing; balance
Glossopharyngeal9"Taste; swallowing; sensation from tongue, tonsil, pharynx, carotid blood pressure
Vagus10"Sensory, motor and autonomic functions of viscera - glands, digestion,
heart rate, breathing rate, aortic blood pressure
Spinal Accessory11"Controls muscles used in head movement
Hypoglossal12"Controls tongue movements

Table 03 Functions of Cranial Nerves

The exact function of the terminal nerve in human is still under investigation, which is hampered by its small size and proximity to the olfactory nerve. For mouse and other animals at least, it is connected to thevomeronasal organ (vestige in human), which leads to a pathway for controlling sexual arousal.

 
Spinal Nerve(s)Innervated Body Part(s)Symptom(s) of SCI
C1Head and NeckQuadriplegia
C2-C4DiaphragmBreathing problem
C5Deltoids, bicepsNo control at wrist or hand
C6Wrist extendersNo hand function
C7-T1Triceps, handdexterity problems with hand and fingers
T2-T8Chest musclesParaplegia, poor trunk control
T9-T12Abdominal musclesParaplegia
Lumbar and SacralLeg muscles, bowel, bladder, sexual organsDecreasing control of hip flexors and legs, dysfunction of bowel, bladder, and sex

Table 04 Symptom(s) of Spinal Cord Injury

Note: Other effects of SCI may include low blood pressure, inability to regulate blood pressure effectively, reduced control of body temperature, inability to sweat below the level of injury, and chronic pain.

 

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Autonomic Nervous System



ANS Side View

One division of the autonomic nervous system, called the sympathetic nervous system, dominates in times of stress. It controls the "fight or flight" reaction, increasing blood pressure, heart rate, breathing rate, and blood flow to the muscles. Another division, called the parasympathetic nervous system, has the opposite effect. It conserves energy by slowing the heartbeat and breathing rate, and by promoting digestion and elimination (of waste). Most glands, smooth muscles, and cardiac muscles constantly get inputs from both the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems. The CNS controls the activity by varying the ratio of the signals. Depending on which motor neurons are selected by the CNS, the net effect of the arriving signals   

Figure 08 ANS Front View [view large image]

Figure 08 is the front view of a more detailed ANS anatomy.

 

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